Data was analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. doi:10.1108/EL-06-2012-0070.  Byerley and Chambers (2002) tested the accessibility of specific electronic databases with screen reading software and found they were not user-friendly. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. Dermody, K., & Majekodunmi, N. (2011). In order to find out whether the students were able to use assistive technology, the researcher sought to find out whether the students had any training on the use of assistive technology. Use of adaptive technology was investigated and its influence on access to e-resources established. In addition they should ensure that the web sites are designed in such a way that they are accessible to this category of users. The findings of this study suggest that there are various challenges facing students with visual impairments when accessing e-resources among which could be technological barriers like web inaccessibility. Stephanie, L. M., Laurie, J. The graphic display may pose several challenges hence the need to explore how users with visual impairment view them as they search the web. KEYBOARDING INSTRUCTION AT THE TORONTO DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD PILOT STUDY 2016-17: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: This report describes the results from the evaluation of the keyboarding pilot program in 2016-17.The purpose of the evaluation was to inform decisions regarding the integration of … For quantitative methods, descriptive statistics was used while thematic analysis approach was used to analyze qualitative data. They found that vendors rated their products as mostly accessible. Construct validity was achieved by ensuring that all the terms used were operationally defined. The independent variable was use of adaptive technology. By continuing, you're agreeing to use of cookies. Kenyatta University was purposively selected since it had the largest population of students with visual impairment. (2013). These computer-related aids and equipment are commonly known as “assistive,” “adaptive,” “access,” or “enabling” technology. Student response to e-books : study of attitude toward reading among elementary school children in Kuwait. To support the effectiveness of assistive technology, a survey of people with disabilities was conducted by The National Council on Disability (Berry & Ignash, 2003). For Quantitative methods, descriptive statistics was used while thematic analysis approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Although significant changes are taking place in Web technol­ogies, the graphical user interface (GUI) has rapidly become dominant and looks likely to remain so. The specific objectives were: To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in adaptive technology (AT), to find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment, to describe the successes in using assistive technology on the e-platform, and to describe the training offered to learners with visual impairment on access to e-resources. When using assistive technology that is adapted to the abilities of everyone, disabled end-users are able to participate in all aspects of social life on more equal terms than ever before. However, Research has shown that people with disabilities are most at risk of being excluded from access, and in particular people who are blind or visually impaired and who use assistive technologies such as screen readers (Brophy & Craven, 2014). Although some people stick to printed resources, the fact that electronic resources offer innovation and irresistible options in terms of cost and time is obvious. Variables: The dependent variable was the access to e-resources. Now in its second year, Pearson’s Global Learner Survey is the most comprehensive global public opinion survey of its kind. Video mag­nifiers and electronic readers, Optical Character Recognition software, magnification software, speech output systems and electronic Braille de­vices all have a part to play in a solution for a particular individual. In the Landmark survey, 9 percent of offices reported budget decreases, 17 percent reported staff reductions and 19 percent reported that their budgets were inadequate to meet needs, regardless of whether budgets were cut. 207-20. In relation to the lack of teacher knowledge, Abner and Lahn (2002) found in their survey in Kentucky of teachers of learners with visual impairments that the teachers did not, in general, feel competent to teach assistive technology. Doiron (2011) as cited in (Chaudhry, 2014) pointed out that reading materials in new electronic format is opening up new opportunities to bring reading to more people and suggested that schools and libraries should take advantage of this situation to promote reading. Following the journal article by Areej Ahmed there is a critical view represented on the subjectivity of assistive technology. Do you have access to a hotspot or WI-FI at home? In the light of the stated reasons of not receiving user education on accessing e-resources; the low number of e-resource access literacy could be attributed to unavailable logistical provisions in such trainings that could accommodate those library users with visual impairments. Coonin, B. In this time of increased student need, some accessibility offices find themselves less equipped than before. The purpose of this research paper was to explore web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing e-resources by students with visual impairments (VI). Such a specification is devoted to describe general learner characteristics, by defining a set of packages that can be used to import data into and extract data from an IMS compliant Learner Informat… Inside Higher Ed recently published a news piece about a case pending against Miami Univerity (OH), for having a website and using software that are inaccessible to students with disabilities. 4, pp. (2007) indicated in their study that vendors are not addressing accessibility in their marketing efforts. electronic versions of newspapers, job applications). Technology assets: Among those with a smartphone and a home broadband connection (just over half the population), 82% have done some personal learning activity in the past year. Target population: All learners with visual impairment in Kenyatta University and staff members who served or offered information literacy skills to the users with visual impairment. Web Accessibility. Library Trends, 55(4), 950–972. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2017, Vol. With technology and economic upheaval changing education forever, people are learning to move forward in a vastly changed world. What are the literacy levels of students and staff in assistive technology? “Learners are resilient, so they are learning and moving forward in new ways to seize that opportunity, no matter what the future holds.”. research instrument adequately covered the area being studied. Nandez & Borrego in their 2014 study noted that the adoption of electronic information in academic setting has been extremely successful. For those who had not received training, the researcher further sought to establish the reasons for not attending or having received user education on how to access e-resources. The specific objectives were: To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in adaptive technology (AT), to find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment, to describe the successes in using assistive technology on the e-platform, and to describe the training offered to learners with visual impairment on access to e-resources. This is a reason good enough for the low usage of e-resources by students with visual impairment in the postmodern library. Access to information enables individuals to acquire knowledge. ICTs and Assistive Technology (AT) are offering new opportunities for everyone but they are becoming more significant for persons with disabilities (PWDs). Web accessibility can make it easier for people to find a website, access it, and use it successfully, thus resulting in increased audience and increased effectiveness. The study also recommends that the library users with visual impairment should be provided with awareness about the availability on request of e-information literacy trainings. However, in addi­tion to this, the information provided on screen must be presented in a way that can be interpreted by any kind of access technology. Many students could have the necessary knowledge in using AT and the library could be having AT present. This is what is referred to as “accessible Web design,” “design for all,” or “universal de­sign.”(Brophy & Craven, 2014). Horwath (2002) surveyed users who were blind or visually impaired on the usability of four databases and found that the design had the greatest impact on the accessibility of the databases. Collaboration with students, research, experience with the technology, and creativity have resulted in SDS expanding the use of assistive technology for students, and we’re committed to continuing to grow in this area.” As for Ibrahim, the best part of his job, he says, is getting so much one-on-one time with students. Paul, S., & P. Singh, S. (2014). The study also recommends that the library and information providers lays down strategies of ensuring that the use of assistive technology on the e-platform is not challenged. This can be through offering access skills, AT skills and creating accessible websites. They understand that the future of work and learning is now a dynamic mix of online and in-person experiences,” said John Fallon, chief executive of Pearson. 169-78. Ekwelem, V. O. 13, Issue 2, pp. ICT have become the most suitable tool, in the field of education, to enhance independence and equal opportunities for all. The present paper aims to provide a holistic and systematic review of the literature in the field of the accessibility and functional diversity of OER and OEP, as a valuable guide for better designing open educational ecosystems that support inclusive learning, improving the potential effect of OER on twenty-first century teaching and learning for learners with different needs. This finding could be attributed to inaccessible web designs, low literacy levels in using electronic resources, lack of knowledge in using assistive technology and lack of motivation in using e-resources possibly caused by the above factors. Second, once accessibility barriers have been overcome, the internet offers a quick access to information that was not readily accessible before (e.g. Further, the library management should consider taking their staff through support programs on how to serve best, users with special needs with in service trainings being apart. The survey shows learners believe it’s unlikely there will be a return to the pre-COVID world of entirely full-time in-person work and learning. 25 No. This could be attributed to the students’ background from the primary, secondary level or the parents’ ability to facilitate the training for the students in assistive technology before joining university. We combine world-class educational content and assessment, powered by services and technology, to enable more effective teaching and personalized learning at scale. Assist, R., & Ongoz, S. (2010). The findings of this research paper would enable information managers to make informed decisions in designing information websites and in the buildup of assistive technology equipments and skills in the current information society setting where digitization is emphasized. However the article by Power and LeBeau (2009) suggests that academic reference librarians can provide students who use screen readers training sessions on how to navigate library databases. According to Brophy & Craven (2014), “Design for all” in a information centre environment basically means that information centre information technology (IT) systems and interfaces must be designed in a way that enables them to be read and interacted easily by all users of the information centre, whether they are physically visiting the information centre itself or accessing it remotely and regardless of any disability or access preference they may have. In his theory, Rogers emphasized the following: •        Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student, •        Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum, •        Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low. This could also be attributed to peer teaching on assistive technology by those who already have the skills. This awareness made the researcher want to find out the reason why the assistive technology could not be useful. How successful is the use of adaptive technology on the e-platform? As Carl Rogers indicates in his theory explained above, provision of the necessary support can achieve independence in learning for learners with visual impairments too. Pearson conducted the study during the pandemic with Harris Insights & Analytics, giving learners in seven countries the opportunity to voice their opinions on primary, secondary and higher education; and careers and the future of work. Please answer the questions below so that we can best meet the needs of our community. It is vital for students to benefit, on an equal basis, from rapid development of ICTs to enter an inclusive and barrier-free Information Society. Further research in the area of web accessibility by learners with specific visual impairments (Blind, Low vision) was also recommended. LONDON, Aug. 10, 2020 – Pearson, the world's learning company, today said more than three out of every four learners globally say the COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed education as we know it. (2009) as cited in (Nández & Borrego, 2014) showed that scholars’ use of electronic information has increased substantially over time as academic libraries transit from print to electronic collections. For the remaining adults (those with just one of these connection devices or neither of them), 64% have done personal learning in the past year. Ie more users and more use. The technology survey is an in-depth survey that is conducted amongst an educational institutions faculty to gauge their level of use of technology and their perceived benefit about the use or non-use of technology. 509-27. After analysis, tables and graphs were used to present quantitative data while qualitative data was presented in textual mode. Byerley, S.L., Chambers, M.B. In addition, this will make them remain irrelevant in the current knowledge society. Research instruments: A questionnaire with both open and close-ended questions was used to collect data from learners with visual impairment while a structured interview was used for the staff. According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when: (1) the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction, (2) it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems, and (3) self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success. Some well-known standards has been defined to answer to the need of profiling learners preferences and needs and in this subsection we are going to describe them. As they come to terms with this new reality, learners want schools and governments to address inequality in the learning experience, and desire digital skills they believe they will need to thrive in the new economy. She asked the students to state the reasons why they found AT available not useful. While this move has provided people with a more creative and flexible experience, there are dangers that some people will be excluded because they cannot use standard methods of access. The findings of this paper are aimed at informing policy in the provision of access literacy skills especially on an e-platform. This sample questionnaire template consists of various survey questions that are used to collect in-depth feedback about increased scope of using technology in education. This is an indication that since the library is a key facility in information seeking; the management could consider organizing formal training sessions on assistive technology either at the library or consider recommending such training through a relevant department like that of special education or through the directorate of disability services. The findings of this study are not different from a study conducted earlier. (2007). To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in assistive technology. After analysis; tables, graphs and charts were used to present quantitative data while qualitative data was presented in textual mode. When the rating is arranged from very good (1) to below average (4), the staff scored 3 out of 4. The findings contradict earlier findings by (Carney, 2003) which showed that the use of computers is particularly important to students with visual impairments, as their ability to use written communication can be enhanced and access to information improved. Technologies such as e-portfolios or blogs can enable learners to gain feedback from multiple audiences, reflect on their ongoing development, and make sense of their learning. However if the available AT present does not tally with the number of students who are expected to use, then the available AT could be termed not useful as attributed to the stated speculation. How is the training on access to e-resources offered to learners with visual impairments? Use of social networks for academic purposes : a case study. Web accessibility and ability to use assistive technology on the e-platform minimizes the external threats. Technology can provide the means for a blind or partially sighted per­son to overcome barriers such as the need to read print, use a computer, take notes and communicate both on paper and electronically. For those who indicated that the available assistive technology was not useful, the researcher further sought to know why they were not useful and yet AT was at least available. The findings were as presented in figure 7: More than half of the students responded that they had not received any user education on how to access e-resources. This theory was applicable in this paper because information seeking is part of the learning process. On literacy levels of learners and staff on assistive technology, the paper concluded that the skills were not adequate to explore the online platform. On the other hand, if the web content is not accessible, then participation of learners with visual impairment in the knowledge society through information access is limited. On e-resource user education, the study concluded that there were very low literacy levels to learners with visual impairments owing mainly to lack of awareness and the low skill levels in using assistive technology for both the training staff and the students being trained. 55-72. The article by Power and LeBeau (2009) supports this and suggests that academic reference information providers can provide learners who use screen readers training sessions on how to navigate information centre databases. Doiron, R. (2011), “Using e-books and e-readers to promote reading in school libraries: lessons from the field”, paper presented at the IFLA Conference, 13-18 August, San Juan, Puerto Rico. The study recommended that: library information managers to encourage independence of learners with VI by improving web accessibility, equipping them with self reliant skills like information literacy and AT skills. Technology for learners with literacy difficulties is used widely in higher education, but not yet in schools. Digitization initiatives and special information centres in India. The Electronic Information centre, 32(2), 221–238. Are the information websites accessible to learners with visual impairment? Various studies indicate that learners with disabilities experience unique challenges when accessing information centre resources (Byerley and Chambers, 2002; Coonin, 2002). The study adopted the Experiential Learning theory proposed by Carl Rogers (1983). Byerley and Chambers (2002) examined the accessibility of two databases (OCLC First search and Expanded Academic) by blind learners using screen readers. Learners and educators alike are often intimidated by—and even resistant to—the use of new technologies in a classroom setting. Retrieved from http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/k/pecs/se/publications.html, Chaudhry, A. S. (2014). Misc., April 30 2020. A study carried out in Canada by (Dermody & Majekodunmi, 2011) established out that there is no doubt that technology has opened the door for learners with disabilities. OK Question Title * 1. Hewett, R., Torgerson, C., Douglas, G., Hewett, R., Torgerson, C., & Douglas, G. (2014). Pro­vision of assistive equipment (adaptive, enabling, or access technology) will enable a user with visual impairment to access on-screen information receiv­ing output in a way that is appropriate to their needs. How to use technology to provide stretch and challenge for all learners Objective. (2002), “Establishing accessibility for e-journals: a suggested approach”, Information centre Hi Tech, Vol. With assistive technology being a practical skill, the ‘good’ rating could be attributed to continued usage of these skills through the available avenues like at the library. Freedom to learn for the 80's. Teaching Students with Visual Impairments. Saskatchewan Learning. (2014). If this situation prevails, learners with visual impairment will continue lagging behind in the moving information world where knowledge is easily generated from the available electronic resources. Complete guide to survey questions with survey examples and sample survey questions that include question types, answer types and good questions for a survey like the Dichotomous Survey Question, Multiple Choice Question, Rank Order Scaling Question, Rating Scale Question, Semantic Differential Scale, Stapel Scale Question, Constant Sum Survey Questions and much more! While screen readers enable learners to navigate their on-line environment, they are limited on how they can interpret a busy website. The ability to explore and describe web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing electronic information resources, would help information managers to consider ways of increasing accessibility to e-resources which would enhance access to information by this category of users. To find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment. They found again that design elements in both databases compromised the accessibility of the databases (Dermody, 2011). How many times do we here “Apple® is better than Android®” or “Microsoft® has the advantage over Apple®”? We have recently updated our policy. A strong interest in attaining digital skills to thrive through and beyond the pandemic. Study location: The study was conducted in Kenyatta University Post Modern Library. However a small but significant number of students indicated that it was easy for them to use e-resources. There were 80 learners with visual impairment and 5 staff members serving them. Whereas accessing electronic information resources offers opportunities to obtain accurate and timely literature, observation shows that there is low usage of these resources by learners with visual impairment in Kenyatta University. They will not be able to access electronic resources which would be a rich bank of worldwide information in all fields of study. This is an indication that assistive technology is a useful skill to those that have acquired it and therefore can be specifically very useful in facilitating easy access to electronic information resources. For students with handwriting difficulties, being able to take notes on a laptop or computerized device (such as an iPad) can improve the quantity and quality of the notes (Vaughn & Bos, 2009). "English Language Learners (ELLs) are an educational priority in the United States as the country has become part of the global community because of technology and the interconnectedness of our cultures. Byerley, S.L. doi:10.1108/07378831111116976. Developments in technology have transformed both face-to-face and online learning. We are the world’s learning company with more than 24,000 employees operating in 70 countries. Carney, S. (2003). The study recommends that the library should design a AT training program for learners with visual impairments as well as conducting regular and one on one training sessions. This theory was applicable in this digital era: challenges for outcome assessment was useful hence... Users is vital  for the Low usage of e-resources by students with visual impairments collection:. Technology can also be a return to the pre-COVID world of entirely full-time in-person and... 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